NewDeal Technical Support Document 268


Definitions of some commonly used words and expressions related to NewDeal software

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Absolute Reference
The specific address of a spreadsheet cell that does not vary if the formula containing it is moved or copied. See: Relative Reference.
Positioning objects on the page with respect to each other.
Anchor Points
Define the ends of a line segment. An anchor point can also determine where two segments meet: two straight segments, two curved segments, or a straight and a curved segment. See: End Points, Control Points, Segments, Tangent Lines.
Special text and graphic objects, such as instructions in a template, which appear on your screen but normally do not print.
A portion of a circle or an ellipse.
Area Attributes
Settings that affect the filled area inside a graphic object.
Area Chart
A line chart in which the area below the line is filled with a pattern or color. See: Column Chart, Bar Chart, Line Chart, X-Y Plot Chart, Pie Chart, High/low Chart.
Arrow pointer
Standard mouse pointer. Use it to point to things and select them.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange, a type of file that contains only plain text characters.


Background Color
The color of the space behind text. See Paragraph Color, Text Color.
Bar Chart
A column chart with the bars plotted horizontally rather than vertically. See: Column Chart, Line Chart, Area Chart, X-Y Plot Chart, Pie Chart, High/Low Chart.
Baud Rate
The rate of speed at which your modem can send and receive information. The speed at which data is transmitted between your computer and the remote system.
A type of graphic in which the data is stored as a pattern of dots.
Bitmap Frame
Defines the outer bounds of a bitmap.
Break Signal
When using NewComm, a break signal is sent to interrupt the process taking place. Some common break signals are sent with the key presses CTRL+C, CTRL+X, or the Break key.
Built-in Functions
Common calculations built into the system software, available in NewCalc or NewFile. Built-in functions are also used in the worksheets in Calculator.
A special character created by pressing CTRL+ALT+8 and typically used to delimit unnumbered lists of items. See: Em Dash.
A user interface gadget that has the appearance of a push-button. To use a button, point at it with your mouse and click. The button will appear to be depressed and the button's action will initiate.


An application to perform standard arithmetical functions such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and computing percentages.
A graphic representation of numeric data. See: Column Chart, Bar Chart, Line Chart, Area Chart, X-Y Plot Chart, Pie Chart, High/Low Chart.
Check Box
A gadget within a menu selection or dialog box that allows you to select or deselect an option. When a check box is darkened, the item is selected or "on." See: Gadget.
Circular reference
A function or formula that contains its own result as part of the calculation. See Iteration, Convergence.
Pressing and releasing a button on the mouse.
An invisible electronic holding space where data is stored when you Copy or Cut from the Edit menu.
Color Format
The depth or number of colors used in a file or in an object. Monochrome means only two colors are used: black and white.
Column Chart
Or vertical bar chart, plots each value in a series as a vertical bar. The height of the bar corresponds to the value of that category. See: Bar Chart, Line Chart, Area Chart, X-Y Plot Chart, Pie Chart, High/Low Chart.
Comma Separated Value (CSV)
A format that many software applications use for import and export. In a CSV file, each row of your spreadsheet is stored as a paragraph of text, with the values in each cell separated by commas. In a CSV file, each record of a database is separated by a carriage return and each field is separated by a comma. In order to allow commas within the data, the data for each field may be surrounded by quote marks.
Control Points
Handles that you use to change the curvature of a curved segment. See: Anchor Points, Control Points, End Points, Segments, Tangent Lines.
When the difference in the result of each successive calculation is no longer significant. See: Iteration.


A file structure which makes it easy to retrieve stored information. A database usually consists of records and each record consists of fields.
Data Bits
The number of bits that form a character.
Data Communications
The capacity of a computer to exchange information with another computer.
Data Document
The source NewDex, NewFile, or NewCalc document that contains data stored in a consistent format to be substituted in a merge document. See: Merge Document
Default Attributes
The area, line, and other attributes that NewDraw automatically uses when you create a new graphic object.
A Geoworks version 1.x term meaning to separate a composite object into its distinct parts so that you can work with them individually. In NewDeal Office, this feature has been replaced with Ungroup.
Destination Disk
Duplicate disk. The disk you are copying to.
Dialog Box
A small window that appears on screen and prompts you for input.
Display Mode
Determines the amount of information in a document that appears on the screen.
Positioning objects so that they are equally spaced from each other.
A holding place for information. A file.
Document Type
This refers to the type of access that you give a document. A document can be set read only, public, template, or a combination of those types.
Document Safeguarding
An automatic function in NewDeal that saves your work in the event of a mishap, such as a power outage.
Quickly pressing and releasing the left mouse button twice. Opens or closes items or starts applications.
Pointing with the mouse, then pressing and holding down the mouse button as you move the mouse.
Draw Mode
An advanced feature which controls the prevailing display color for overlapping objects.
Do-not pointer
Indicates that the mouse pointer is in an area of the screen where clicking will not cause any action.


Em dash
A special long dash created by pressing SHIFT+CTRL+ALT+HYPHEN, used to delimit parenthetical expressions.
End Points
The first and last anchor points for an open polyline. See: Anchor Points, Control Points, Segments, Tangent Lines.
In NewPlanner, these are items like special dates, weekly meetings, important appointments, etc.
Express Menu
A special menu in NewDeal Office that allows you to quickly switch among running applications, check your printing, or exit directly to DOS.
The optional three characters following the period in a DOS file name. The extension often provides a clue about the type of data the file contains. For example, .TXT usually means a plain text file.


A database term referring to one item of data in a record.
First Line Indent
When the first line starts farther from the left edge of the page than the rest of the paragraph. See Indentation, Hanging Indent
A place to store files, such as documents, applications, and other folders. In DOS, a folder is called a subdirectory or directory.
A typeface or the design of the individual alphabetical and numeric characters.
A reference, comment, or explanation that appears at the bottom of every page of your document and contains objects (text, graphics, or both). See: Header.
Built-in formulas that automatically perform common calculations in NewCalc and NewFile.
A Geoworks 1.x term for gathering distinct objects together so that you can work with them as if they were a single object. In NewDeal Office this feature is replaced with Group.


An object in the user interface which responds to input from the user. Gadgetry includes menus, buttons, spinners, check boxes, scroll bars, and radio buttons.
Galley Display Mode
Shows all the text formatting but displays only one continuous column of text.
Gradient Fill
A type of area fill that gradually fades from one color to another. See: Horizontal Gradient, Vertical Gradient, Rectangular Gradient, Radial Gradient.
Graphic Frame
A rectangle that you can use to put a frame around text or graphics in a document.
A matrix of horizontal and vertical lines dividing the document page.
To gather distinct objects together so that you can work with them as if they were a single object.
A single vertical or horizontal line that you can use to help position objects on the page.


Hanging Indent
When the first line starts closer to the left edge of the page than the rest of the paragraph. See: First Line Indent, Indentation.
A section at the top of your document that contains items (text, graphics, or both) that you want to appear at the top of every page. See: Footer.
Help pointer
This pointer appears on NewDeal help screens. It indicates you can jump to a new section of help text.
High/Low Chart
This type of chart tracks pairs of data that mark a high or a low or a start and end value. See: Column Chart, Bar Chart, Line Chart, Area Chart, X-Y Plot Chart, Pie Chart.
Horizontal Gradient
Gradient Fill that goes from left to right, beginning with the start color on the left edge of the graphics object and ending with the end color on the right edge. See: Gradient Fill, Vertical Gradient, Rectangular Gradient, Radial Gradient.
Hourglass pointer
This indicates that the application is busy. You must wait until the hourglass pointer changes to a different type of pointer before you can take further action.


I-beam pointer
The mouse pointer that indicates you can type or edit text. You can also use it to select text and to choose where the text you type appears.
A small picture that represents an item you can perform actions on, such as a file, an application, a folder, etc.
The distance between the text and the left page margin. See: First Line Indent, Hanging Indent.
Insertion Point
The blinking vertical line that indicates where the characters you type will appear on the screen.
One step in the process of recalculating a circular reference repeatedly, until convergence occurs. See Convergence.
Invisible Characters
Non-printing characters that you type but don't normally see on-screen, such as spaces, tabs, paragraph marks, page and column breaks, etc.


Documents that have been sent to the printer.
The horizontal alignment of text with respect to the margin. Choices are left justified, right justified, centered, and full justification.


The width of the paper is greater than its height. Horizontal layout or orientation.
The visual presentation of data in NewFile.
A custom icon that corresponds to a DOS program. When you double-click the icon for a launcher, NewDeal shuts down and runs the program. If you are using a task-switcher, NewDeal switches out and the DOS program runs.
Line Attributes
The settings that affect the border of an object or a line object.
Line Chart
Plots a point indicator for each value on one axis in relation to the text label on the other axis, and connects the points in each series with straight lines. See: Column Chart, Bar Chart, Area Chart, X-Y Plot Chart, Pie Chart, High/Low Chart.
Line Orientated
A DOS text file in which each line ends in a carriage return and line feed. In other words, each line is separated from the next line by pressing the ENTER key at the end of each line. See: Word Wrap.
Local Printer
The printer that is directly attached to your computer by a cable, as opposed to a network printer.


The points in line and X-Y charts. See: Line Chart, X-Y Chart.
In NewFile, indications that a record is a member of a group. The mark looks like a check mark and appears in the upper-right corner of the Record Control Panel when the current record is marked.
Master Page
A prototype of how text and graphics appear on every page in a section.
To make a window the full-size of the screen.
A user interface gadget that displays a list of choices. Menus often appear just below the title bar in an application's primary window.
Merge Document
The word processor document containing labels which will be replaced by the data from the Data Document. See: Data Document.
A single letter or number you can press to make a menu choice.
A hardware device attached to your computer that translates the various telephone and computer signals that enable your computer to transfer data to and from another computer.
A font in which every character is the same width, like a typewriter. See Proportionally Spaced.


Network Printer
A printer that is shared by many users across a network.
A NewDeal application that provides an easy way to create banners for any occasion.
NewDeals' electronic spreadsheet application.
A communications application for transferring data to and from other computers, online services, bulletin board systems, and mainframe computers.
An electronic address and telephone directory.
An application that allows you to create many types of designs, pictures, and illustrations.
A NewDeal application which provides a flexible set of tools for sorting and retrieving data, a database manager.
A NewDeal application where you can perform all your disk and file management tasks just by pointing and clicking your mouse.
An automated appointment book that combines a yearly calendar and scheduler in one easy-to-use application.
NewDeal Office
A state-of-the-art system software where you will find writing, drawing, scheduling, database, and calculating tools.
NewDeal SchoolSuite
A state-of-the-art system software designed specifically for students and teachers.
A word processor and page layout program that allows the user to create word processing documents such as memos, letters, and reports.
Moving selected objects small distances with the arrow keys. A normal nudge is 10 points or just under 1/7 of an inch. Hold the SHIFT key to nudge one pixel at a time.


A shape, a line, a graphic, or a block of text.


Paragraph Color
The background color for an entire paragraph. See Background Color, Text Color.
Parent Folder
The folder (subdirectory) that contains the current folder.
An error-checking mechanism used to ensure error-free transmission of information.
Pie Chart
A circular chart in which the size of each slice is proportional to its percentage of the whole. See: Column Chart, Bar Chart, Line Chart, Area Chart, X-Y Plot Chart, High/Low Chart.
Similar to the way you can pin a piece of paper to a wall, you can pin menus in NewDeal Office to keep them from closing after you make a choice.
Individual dots that make up an image, like the dots on a television screen or a newspaper photo.
A measurement used in the printing industry.
The image that moves about on the screen as you move the mouse, most often the shape of an arrow. See: Arrow pointer, Hourglass pointer, I-beam pointer, Do-not pointer, Help pointer.
The height of a paper is greater than its width. Vertical layout or orientation.
NewDeal application that allows you to customize the software to meet your specific needs and likes.
Proportionally Spaced
A font or type style in which some characters are wider than others and the space used by a character is relative to the character's width. See: Monospaced.
Print Queue
A collection of print jobs waiting to be printed.
A set of rules established between two devices that govern the orderly exchange of information.


Radial Gradient
A Gradient Fill that goes in an elliptical pattern from the outside edge of the graphic object to its center, beginning with the start color on the outside edge and ending with the end color at the center. See: Gradient Fill, Horizontal Gradient, Rectangular Gradient, Vertical Gradient.
Radio Buttons
A user interface gadget that behave like the buttons on an old car radio, one--and only one--button in a group of radio buttons is selected at any time.
Read-only Document
A document that can be viewed but not edited.
A database term meaning a set of related data.
Rectangular Gradient
A Gradient Fill that goes in an angular pattern from the outside edge of the graphic object to its center, beginning with the start color on the outside edge and ending with the end color at the center. See: Gradient Fill, Horizontal Gradient, Radial Gradient, Vertical Gradient.
Identifies a cell or range of cells in a spreadsheet.
Relative Reference
The address of a cell in a spreadsheet based on the location of the formula that contains it. If you move or copy the formula, the address changes to maintain its relationship to the cell containing the formula. See: Absolute Reference.
The number of dots, or pixels, per inch.
Guides that help you precisely measure the vertical or horizontal distance between an object and boundaries of the drawing area.


See: Document Safeguarding.
Saving a Document or File
Recording a document or file on a permanent storage medium such as a fixed disk.
To resize an object in a precise manner, shrinking or stretching its dimensions as desired.
A NewDeal application that gives you a place to store graphics and bits of text so that they are available at a moments notice.
The notes, pictures, and other items that you store in the
Screen Burn-In
A situation where an image on the video screen becomes visible even when the monitor is turned off. Burn in is caused by leaving the same picture on the screen for an extended period of time. Older monochrome monitors are more subject to burn in than newer VGA monitors.
Scroll bar
If a document is larger than the window, this user interface gadget lets you move the view around to see various parts of the document. A scroll bar consists of two arrows, a thumb (elevator car), and some thumb space (elevator shaft). The thumb space represents the document, and the thumb represents the currently visible portion of the document. The arrows let you move the view one line or a small amount at a time. Clicking in the thumb space moves the view one thumb's distance per click. A spinner is like a scroll bar with no thumb.
Scroll-back buffer
The stored text that scrolls off the screen out of view and can be retrieved.
In NewWrite, one or more pages that form a portion or chapter in a document. Each section has its own Master Pages. In NewDraw or the draw layer, one of the lines or curves that make up a polyline. See: Anchor Points, End Points, Control Points, Tangent Lines.
A single key stroke you can use to select a menu choice. Using the shortcut key has the same effect as opening a menu and choosing the item.
To slant a graphic object.
Smart Quotes
A feature in NewDeal Office to automatically create quote marks as curly quotes. See: Typographical Quotes.
A card game similar to the real card game, except the computer shuffles and deals the cards on screen.
Source Disk
The original disk or diskette that you are copying from.
See: Value Selector, Scrollbar.
An electronic version of the pages used by bookkeepers to track financial information. Spreadsheets may be used to store many different kinds of data and they use the computer to make calculations quickly and efficiently.
Startup Document
The default document that opens automatically when you start the application.
Stop Bits
Used to indicate the end of each character as it is transmitted.
Alphanumeric characters. String functions extract text or return numbers based on text.
A secondary menu. Next to some menu choices is a right pointing arrow. Selecting those menu items will open a submenu.


Tab Stop
Where the insertion point advances to and stops when you press the Tab Key, denoted by a special symbol on the ruler.
Tangent Lines
The line that connects an anchor point to its control point. It runs tangent to the curve at the anchor point. See: Anchor Points, Control Points, End Points, Segments.
Documents which serve as a starting point for your work. These documents that are already formatted with text and/or graphics.
Text Color
The color of the characters. See: Background Color, Paragraph Color.
A computer video display, keyboard, and other components that form a device for interfacing with a a mainframe computer or network server.
Text Entry Box
An area of the screen in which text appears as you type, often part of a dialog box.
Text File Editor
A simple editing program that allows you to read, write, and edit ASCII or DOS text files.
Text File
A type of DOS data file used and created by DOS applications or Text File Editor, also known as an ASCII file.
Text Style Sheet
The set of all the named text styles in a document.
A list of synonyms.
Title Page
The first page of a document. It can be the cover of a report, test, essay, or book. The Title Page usually contains descriptive information such as the title of the document, the name of the author, the date of printing, and is often formatted differently from the rest of the document.
Tool Area
A section of the NewManager window that contains buttons you can use to quickly choose drives and directories, as well as quickly change the way folder windows are presented within the NewManager window.
To give an object special visual effects such as scaling, skewing, and rotating.
Typographical Quotes
These are curly single and double quotation marks, apostrophes, and commas. See: Smart Quotes.


To separate a grouped object back into its component objects so you can work with them individually. NOTE: in 1.x this term was called Defuse.
User Interface
The way a software presents itself to the user. Often referred to by its abbreviation UI, the User Interface includes the appearance of the software on screen, sounds, and any other sensory data that is sent by the software to the user.


Value Selector
A user interface gadget used to increase or decrease a value by clicking on arrows, or by pressing arrow keys, or by typing the appropriate value in its text entry box. Sometimes called a spinner.
Vertical Gradient
A Gradient Fill that goes from top to bottom, beginning with the start color on the top edge of the graphic object and ending with the end color on the bottom edge. See: Gradient Fill, Horizontal Gradient, Rectangular gradient, Radial gradient.


A place to deposit files you wish to delete. Like a real wastebasket, this folder temporarily stores files until you empty it or until you exit the software.
Wild Card
A symbol that substitutes for a single character (?) or a series of characters (*). You can use wild cards to search for words or phrases that are similar.
Word Length
Sometimes referred to as data bits, this determines the number of bits used to convey each character transmitted.
Word Wrap
Words that go beyond the end of the line automatically move down to the next line. See: Line Orientated.
Wrapping text
Automatically making space in some text for a graphic to appear.
What You See Is What You Get means that your printed page looks just like the document on the screen.


X-Y Plot Chart
Sometimes called a scatter plot, this chart looks similar to a line chart, but there is a significant difference between the two. Line charts plot a value against a label, whereas X-Y plot charts plot one value against another. See: Column Chart, Bar Chart, Line Chart, Area Chart, Pie Chart, High/Low Chart.


Zooming Out
To make a document smaller on the screen, so that you can view it all at once. Zooming out is like getting a birds eye view of the document.
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Last Modified 17 Feb 1999